A Short History Of Secret US Human Biological Experimentation
(Posted here by Wes Penre, October 25, 2004)

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1931 Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller
Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He
later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities
in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy
Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments
on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.

1932 The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with
syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead
are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms
of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families
never told that they could have been treated.

1935 The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from
Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts
to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at
least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to
act since most of the deaths occured within poverty-striken black

1940 Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to
study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease.
Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend
their own actions during the Holocaust.

1942 Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on
approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and
made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs
rather than serve on active duty.

1943 In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S.
begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.
1944 U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing.
Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and

1945 Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army
intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them
immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects
in the United States.

1945 "Program F" is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride,
which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of
the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked
adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the
information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits
would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.

1946 Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical
experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change
the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever
reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.

1947 Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Comission issues
a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the
agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to
human subjects.

1947 The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by
American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are
used with and without their knowledge.

1950 Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in
desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality

1950 I n an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city
would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from
ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city
in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with
pneumonia-like symptoms.

1951 Department of Defense begins open air tests using disease-producing
bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that
people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.

1953 U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over
Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in
Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how efficiently
they could disperse chemical agents.

1953 Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of
thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne
germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.

1953 CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven year research
program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be
used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the subprojects
involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.

1955 The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human
populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn from
the Army's biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.

1955 Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential
use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans
participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.

1956 U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over
Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents posing
as public health officials test victims for effects.

1958 LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army's Chemical Warfare
Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.

1960 The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI)
authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the european
population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian
population is code named Project DERBY HAT.

1965 Project CIA and Department of Defense begin Project MKSEARCH, a
program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of
mind-altering drugs.

1965 Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia are
subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in
VietNam. The men are later studied for development of cancer, which
indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along.

1966 CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological
effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.

1966 U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger throughout the
New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when
army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation

1967 CIA and Department of Defense implement Project MKNAOMI, successor
to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test biological and
chemical weapons.

1968 CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by
injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA in Washington, D.C.
1969 Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense requests from
congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a synthetic biological
agent to which no natural immunity exists.

1970 Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained under H.R.
15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out by the
Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army's top secret biological
weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology techniques are
used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses.

1970 United States intensifies its development of "ethnic weapons"
(Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively target and eliminate
specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic differences and
variations in DNA.

1975 The virus section of Fort Detrick's Center for Biological Warfare
Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities and placed
under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) . It is here that
a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S. Navy, purportedly
to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists
isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human
T-cell Leukemia Virus).

1977 Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirm that 239
populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between
1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key
West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.

1978 Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC,
begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects
specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1981 First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in New York,
Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have
been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine

1985 According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV and VISNA, a
fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic and
evolutionary relationship.

1986 According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
(83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share all
structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to HTLV.
This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce
a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists.

1986 A report to Congress reveals that the U.S. Government's current
generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally
occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic
engineering to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all existing

1987 Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty banning
research and development of biological agents, it continues to operate research
facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the nation.

1990 More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic babies in Los
Angeles are given an "experimental" measles vaccine that had never been licensed
for use in the United States. CDC later admits that parents were never
informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental.

1994 With a technique called "gene tracking," Dr. Garth Nicolson at the
MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that many returning
Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of Mycoplasma
incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production of biological weapons.
Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat,
indicating that it had been man-made.

1994 Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing that for at
least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of thousands of
military personnel in human experiments and for intentional exposure to dangerous
substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas, ionizing
radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Gulf War .

1995 U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese war criminals
and scientists who had performed human medical experiments salaries and
immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological warfare research.

1995 Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents
used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton,
Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.

1996 Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm soldiers were
exposed to chemical agents.

1997 Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an
investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome.