A Nation Betrayed
The Chilling True Story
Secret Cold War Experiments Performed on our Children
Other Innocent People
by Carol Rutz
Could You Be One of the People Who Was Used as a Guinea Pig by Your Own Government?
Using electroshock, drugs, hypnosis, sensory deprivation and other types of trauma the CIA conducted Mind Control experiments on children in their attempt to create a Manchurian Candidate.
Thousands of innocent children who have now grown into adults are silently suffering from the effects of these experiments.
Your tax dollars paid doctors
to participate in these and other experiments in ESP, Remote Viewing, Radiation
and research with Chemical and Biological Warfare while working under government
contracts in the
Read the PROOF obtained from 18,000 pages of declassified documents from
Bluebird/Artichoke and MKULTRA Projects
Documentation and Testimony from Survivors of these Cold War Tests.
Mustard Gas and Lewisite Testing on Military Personnel
“Between 1955 and 1975 the US Army enrolled 6720 soldiers in an experimental exposure program of chemical warfare and other agents at Edgewood Arsenal, MD. 254 chemicals were administered in an experimental setting.“
of Volunteers in Chemical Agent
interviews, some tentative conclusions may be drawn regarding the ethical milieu
of medical research in the 1940's and '50's. In the absence of an
established code of conduct, other influences guided investigator
behavior. Some perhaps caught up in the excitement of research or the
desire to advance their career, used patients as subjects of investigation
without their knowledge or consent. Others relied on the power and
prestige of their position to convince subjects to participate even when benefit
was questionable or nonexistent, and even in the absence of complete
Members of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Publication Date: July 2001
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Size: 5 ½ x 8 ½
Author: Rutz, Carol
contains a Complete Index
Email Carol Rutz at firstname.lastname@example.org with questions.
Table of Contents
Part I Mind Control Experiments on Children
1 The Spoils of War
2 A Star is Born
3 Home Sweet Home
4 Men Behind the Shadow Government
5 Training for the Agency
6 Dr. Black Joseph Mengele survivor sightings
Part II Radiation, Biological and Chemical Experiments
Radiation Experiments *
Human Research at the Bomb Tests
Research On Protective Clothes
Human Radiation Experiments
Infants, Children and Pregnant Women
The Iodine 131 Experiment in
The Green Run
Biological and Chemical Experiments
Sea Dumping of Chemical Weapons
The Incapacitant Program
Biological Weapons and Testing
Open Air Testing
Army Contracts with Outside Agency's
Appeal to Lawmakers by MKULTRA Targeted Individuals
Read the Preface of book Copyright © 2001
This is the story of someone you know-your neighbor, your classmate, your brother or sister, your mother or father. It is the secret they have been holding within their hearts, because they were afraid the American public could not believe their government would carry out human experimentation on children in direct defiance of the
Code, which has been "official" Nuremberg policy since 1946. United States
Some of the very same Nazi doctors who worked in mental institutions before WW II, deciding whether mentally deficient children should be sterilized or killed because of their defective genes, also carried out horrendous experiments in the death camps. Their medical expertise, along with hundreds of Nazi scientists was considered so vital to the "Cold War" effort; that they would be brought into the
and United States to work side by side with some of the greatest but most perverse minds the 20th century would ever see. Canada
In September 1999 the Department of Justice succeeded in denaturalizing 63 participants in Nazi acts of persecution; and in removing 52 such individuals from this country. This appears to be but a small portion of those who actually were brought here by our own government. A 1999 report to the Senate and the House said, "that between 1945 and 1955, 765 scientists, engineers, and technicians were brought to the
under Overcast, Paperclip, and similar programs. It has been estimated that at least half, and perhaps as many as 80 percent of the imported specialists were former Nazi Party members." United States
Not all of those imported participated in experiments, but some did. A number of these scientists were recruited to work for the Air Force's School of Aviation Medicine (SAM) at Brooks Air Force Base in Texas, where dozens of human radiation experiments were conducted during the Cold War. Among them were flashblindness studies in connection with atomic weapons tests and data gathering for total-body irradiation studies conducted in
. The experiments for which Nazi investigators were tried included many related to aviation research. Hubertus Strughold, called "the father of space medicine," had a long career at the SAM, including the recruitment of other Paperclip scientists in Houston . On Germany September 24, 1995the Jewish Telegraphic Agency reported that as head of Nazi Germany's Air Force Institute for Aviation Medicine, Strughold participated in a 1942 conference that discussed "experiments" on human beings. The experiments included subjecting concentration camp inmates to torture and death. Dachau
EdgewoodArsenal of the Army's Chemical Corps as well as other military research sites recruited these scientists with backgrounds in aeromedicine, radiobiology, and ophthalmology. Edgewood Arsenal, ended up conducting experiments on more than seven thousand American soldiers. Using Maryland Auschwitzdocuments as a guide, they conducted the same type of poison gas experiments that had been done in the secret I.G. Farben laboratories.
Wright Patterson Airforce Base in Ohio employed several German Peenemunde scientists, brought there by Army Air Force Colonel Donald Putt. Peenemunde Aerodynamics Institute built the V-2 rockets and German fighter jets using forced slave labor from the Karlshagen concentration camp. The
Peenemundeteam leader, Wernher von Braun, became the first director of the . Just two weeks after the moon landing, von Braun confessed in a letter to an Army General, that he had been a member of the SS. "It's true that I was a member of Hitler's elite SS. The columnist was correct. I would appreciate it if you would keep the information to yourself, as any publicity would harm my work with NASA." Marshall Space Flight Center
Former Peenemunde General Walter Dornberger became vice president of Bell Aircraft Co. after he ended his employment at Wright-Patterson Airforce Base where he worked on a classified rocketry program. Dornberger controlled the production schedule for building the Nordhausen rocket works at the Dora concentration camp where over 20,000 prisoners were killed through starvation, disease, or execution.
A Congressional subcommittee hearing in 1994 revealed that up to 500,000 Americans were endangered by secret defense-related tests between 1940 and 1974. These included covert experiments with radioactive materials, mustard gas, LSD, and biological agents. The General Accounting Office testified that between 1949 and 1969, the Army released radioactive compounds in 239 cities to study the effects.
Experiments began in the 1930's and continued on for the next four decades.
· The government admitted wrongdoing in the 1932
Experiments, where poor black African American sharecroppers from Tuskegee were allowed to go untreated for their syphilis so the effects could be studied. When physicians and researchers involved with the Macon County, Alabama Public Health Service offered them free medical care, they believed they had found treatment for what they had been told was "bad blood." Instead, they were enrolled in an observational research study, without their knowledge or consent. Even though some rudimentary remedies for syphilis were available in the early years of the study, they were not offered to these men, so that the study of the natural history of the untreated disease would not be jeopardized. This study did not end until 1972, forty years after it had begun, and twenty years after penicillin had been identified as an effective treatment for syphilis. On United States May 16, 1997, President Clinton apologized to the survivors and families of hundreds of men used in this research project.
· Twelve human "guinea pigs" were secretly injected with radioactive Plutonium 239 and uranium in government experiments in the 1940’s. Energy Secretary Hazel O’Leary, in announcing the settlement of $4.8 million to be paid to their families, said the government was "grateful" to the victims for "the tough lessons they have taught us about trust, responsibility, and accountability between the government and the people."
· Less known were such experiments as the feeding of radioactive cereal in the 1940s and 1950s to young male children who were institutionalized at the
in Fernald School . The researchers had little experience with radionuclides in humans; consequently this approach to medical investigation gave them that opportunity. The parents as well as the children were simply told they were being fed a diet rich in iron. According to oral testimony given before the President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation, they were told they belonged to the Science Club to make them feel special and then taken to the MIT Faculty Club where it was easier to control them. One researcher said, "It would be nice to do something for them because these kids have been involved, we've had to jab them [with needles], and they had to eat a meal every little drop of it, because you wanted to be sure they got 100 percent of the radioactivity wouldn’t it be nice to do something for them?" Massachusetts
· Atomic tests on 2584 military personnel in the
desert in 1953. Nevada
· During the 1950s and 1960s Dr. Saul Krugman of
conducted studies of hepatitis at the New York University , an institution for the severely mentally retarded. Krugman and his staff systematically infected newly arrived children between the ages of three and eleven with strains of the virus obtained from the feces of Willowbrook hepatitis patients. This was done to study the natural history, effects, and progression of the disease. In 1972 Geraldo Rivera wrote an expose entitled Willowbrook, in which he reported that one hundred percent of the patients contacted hepatitis within six months of being in this institution. Obviously, he was unaware of the intentional infection of these children. When he saw them he compared them to photographs he had seen of the Nazi death camps. When Bobby Kennedy toured this institution in September of 1965 he said, "At Willowbrook we have a situation that borders on a snake pit: . . . the children live in filth . . ." The Journal of the American Medical Association actually went so far as to credit Krugman’s "judicious use of human beings." Franz Inglefinger, who later became the editor of the New England Journal of Medicine went even further by saying, "By being allowed to participate in a carefully supervised study and by receiving the most expert attention available for a disease of basically unknown nature, the patients themselves benefited . . . How much better to have a patient with hepatitis accidentally or deliberately acquired under the guidance of a Krugman, than under the care of a rights-minded zealot." Willowbrook State School
· Retarded children at D.C. Children’s Center in
in a section called the Laurel were used as human guinea pigs for both private industry and the government. Among the experiments, was the testing of NeoBazine a diet pill commonly referred to as "rainbow pills." They contained thyroxin, which caused tremors, nervousness, insomnia, and tachycardia. It was being tested for its safety and efficiency. In October 1964 the FDA found that the drug was not safe for use. In 1962 the children were again used to test a drug for skin diseases, which doctors strongly suspected caused serious side effects to the human liver. More than half the children tested suffered some liver dysfunction. Eight were admitted to District Training School for intensive care. That same year, 17 D.C. General Hospital children were used to study thyroid hormone metabolism in children. The children were injected with thyroxin mixed with radioactive iodine to aid doctors in tracing a body process. As you can see, there was a clear pattern of using innocent children who had no way of protecting themselves. Laurel Center
· Alexander Cockburn describes a 1960 Army Chemical Corps experiment where mosquitoes with yellow fever and dengue fever were dispersed in
, Savannah and Georgia . According to Cockburn, " Avon Park, Florida , which was exclusively black, was the target for these experiments. Residents at the time reported fevers, bronchitis, typhoid, encephalitis, stillbirths, also mysterious deaths." Carver Village
Dr. Alan W. Scheflin, Professor of law at Santa Clara University Law School, and a judicially recognized expert in mind and behavior control states in a letter dated March 9, 1995, that secret government mind control experimentation is ongoing and vastly more expansive than the government authorities are willing to admit. He also is co-author of a nonfiction book entitled The Mind Manipulators, which was published in a dozen countries. He says that he has been studying these secret programs since 1975 and it is his conclusion that there are at minimum hundreds, and most likely thousands of American citizens who were used as guinea pigs against their will in government research projects. What he does not say is that most of the children used in these experiments were sold by one of their caretakers in the name of "National Security" and subjected to untold horrors at the hands of their government. In light of so many abuses of power coming before the public in recent years, many adult survivors of these childhood experiments are stepping forward to be heard.
In October 1995 the President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments reported that secret radiation experiments on indigent patients and mentally retarded children were not only done, but that these people were deceived about the nature of their treatments. Dr. William Silverman asserted that performing nontherapeutic experiments on children without authorization from parents was part of a broader "ethos of the time" in which "everyone was a draftee" in a national war on disease.
In most cases the experiments involving radiation, chemical and biological warfare materials were carried out on an unsuspecting public. These are listed in Part II of this book. Government mind control experiments using drugs, sensory deprivation, hypnosis, and electric shock were used on adults and children to gain control of their minds. Impossible, you say. I wish it were. We live in such a sheltered little world. It’s much easier to believe that violence and mind control belong to a few scattered cults.
In a decision dated
April 16, 1985Chief Justice Burger of the Court of Appeals delivered the opinion of the Court in the case of CIA v. SIMS, 471 United States 159. This case focused around the publics right under the Freedom of Information Act, to have declassified the grant proposals and contracts, and the names of the institutions and individuals who had performed research under the CIA financed research project, code-named MKULTRA. U.S.
MKULTRA was established to counter soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing and interrogation techniques and consisted of 149 subprojects contracted out to at least 80 institutions. In 1977 Director of Intelligence Stansfield Turner described in an affidavit, that the program was initiated because the Agency was confronted with "learning the state of the art of behavioral modification at a time when the U.S. Government was concerned about inexplicable behavior of persons behind the 'iron curtain' and American prisoners of war who had been subjected to so called brainwashing."
It began with a proposal from Richard Helms, who outlined a special funding mechanism for highly sensitive Agency research and development projects that would study the use of biological and chemical materials in altering human behavior. Allen Dulles approved MKULTRA on April 13, 1953. Twenty years after the conception of the MKULTRA project, all known files pertaining to it were ordered destroyed by Richard Helms before he retired.
In 1977 through a Freedom of Information Act request by John Marks, 16,000 pages of documents were found, held as part of the Agency’s financial history. Further attempts at declassification resulted in the decision rendered by Chief Justice Burger that the "intelligence sources" who were guaranteed confidentiality at the time of these CIA funded research projects would continue to remain protected and classified.
To those of us who have survived these experiments, this decision means that our stories will continue to lie in the government vaults of classified materials. Most of the important details were conveniently destroyed under orders of Richard Helms to conceal their wrongdoing. Think what would have happened if the records of the Holocaust had met the same fate. The disappearance of six million people could have remained a question mark in history.
As a survivor of CIA programs Bluebird/Artichoke and MKULTRA, I began my intense search to document some of the mind control experiments that I was made part of, starting at the tender age of four. Through a series of FOIA requests to various departments of the government, I have amassed an incredible amount of material that validates my personal experiences. The CIA bought my services from my grandfather in 1952. Over the next twelve years, I was tested, trained, and used in various ways. Electroshock, drugs, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, and other types of trauma were used to make me compliant and split my personality. The "Manchurian Candidate", where a programmed alter or personality is created to respond to a post-hypnotic trigger then perform an act and not remember it later, was just one of the operational uses of the mind control scenario by the CIA. A reliable truth serum would be another. In Bluebird, Dr. Colin Ross documents the deliberate creation of Multiple Personality by psychiatrists working under government contracts. Your hard earned tax dollars supported this, as well as experiments on extrasensory perception and remote viewing, all of which I was tested and trained for.
CIA personnel were not opposed to working with Nazi doctors who had proven to be proficient in breaking the mind and rebuilding it. To perform these experiments they also used the expertise and knowledge of doctors at private hospitals with whom they made contractual agreements. In some cases military bases were used to hide these covert activities.
December 17, 1999I turned 52 years old. On that day I received three CD ROMs from the CIA in response to my FOIA request. Forty-eight years after I was first experimented on, I found solid proof of my memories--proof that was in the government vaults of the nearly 18,000 pages of declassified documents from the Bluebird/Artichoke and MKULTRA programs. One of the documents specifically stated that experimental studies of the postulated abilities of a few specially gifted subjects would be conducted. The document states, "that in working with individual subjects, special attention will be given to dissociative states which tend to accompany spontaneous ESP experiences. Such states can be induced and controlled to some extent with hypnosis and drugs . . . The data used in the study will be obtained from special groups such as psychotics, children and mediums . . ."
The document continues, "Learning studies will be instituted in which the subject will be rewarded or punished for his overall performance and reinforced in various ways--by being told whether he was right, by being told what the target was, with electric shock etc." The proposal then goes on to say, "In other cases drugs and psychological tricks will be used to modify his attitudes. The experimenters will be particularly interested in dissociative states, from the abaissement de niveau mental, to multiple personality in so-called mediums; and an attempt will be made to induce a number of states of this kind, using hypnosis." The government had finally handed me the validation I had been searching for. To say my heart stopped that day is almost true.
My goal in writing this book is to expose the misuse of power that took place in this country during the Cold War. Thousands of innocent children who have now grown into adults are silently suffering from the effects of the experiments that were done to them by their own government. Many have been diagnosed incorrectly and institutionalized. Some died because they knew too much. Others, like myself, were able to obtain competent medical help, and are struggling to heal from the physical and mental ravages upon our beings.
In recounting some of the incidents that happened to me as part of these experiments, I ask that you remember that I have attempted to be as accurate as possible. Some of these events were remembered during flashbacks and abreactions. During an abreaction, a person feels just like they are reliving the event; accompanied by all the sensory stimulation and original emotional responses. Abreaction is common in soldiers who are having posttraumatic stress syndrome, where they actually feel they are back on the battlefield.
The brain is somewhat like a phonograph record, it records the original happening. With Dissociative Identity Disorder, amnesia is created for the traumatic incident to save the young child's sanity. When the amnesiac barriers are removed, it is like putting the needle back on the track of the record where the original memory is stored.
In my case, post-hypnotic suggestions were used after programming sessions, which also created an amnesiac barrier. When the wall to these memories was broken down and the events relived, I would document them in bits and pieces by journaling, drawing and painting. Some of the things I remembered seemed bizarre, and I oftentimes questioned my own sanity. Only after all the pieces of one memory would come together, would I finally get a true picture of exactly what had been done. This is also when I truly began to heal.
For skeptics, no proof will be enough. For others, like myself, unraveling the bizarre nature of my memories has allowed me to regain control of my life. My greatest gift of healing has been to no longer operate out of fear, but from a rational, logical based reality. Choices to live, love and create that were taken from me through the fragmentation of my mind can now be explored.
Some people have asked, "Why now do you choose to speak out?" I prefer to let an Auschwitz-Birkenau survivor of the Mengele Twins experiments speak for me. When asked how she felt while she was being used as a guinea pig she said,
"My answer is that emotional scars are so deep that only now, more than 40 years later, are we attempting to face our past and come to terms with it."
I ask those same people. How can we envision the future without visiting the past? Will we let this story lay in the shadows forever, or do we have the courage to address these wrongs and give survivors back their voices? You be the judge.
ETHICS, Request to the NIH Bioethics Group,
April 5, 1999
In so much as the Inter-Institute Bioethics Interest Group is currently considering research in bioethics, the Advocacy Committee for Human Experimentation Survivors wishes to apprise the group of the passing of the fourth anniversary of the testimony of two survivors, Claudia Mullen and Chris DeNicola Ebner with their therapist, Valerie Wolf, before the Presidents Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments in March, 1995. The President’s Committee recommended further exploration of this testimony which concerned the sadistic experimentation upon children, for the purposes of mind control and other unwitting uses. To date, no such investigation into these claims or others by additional survivors of radiation, chemical and biological experimentation perpetrated upon them as unwitting children, had been initiated.
ACHES requests the aid of this group in the following goals:
The declassification of all government held files, documents, tapes or records relating to any experimentation involving children, prisoners or the mentally incapacitated, particularly those that relate to covertly or privately funded mind control, radiation, chemical or biological programs, both past and present.
The creation of a Presidential Committee to identify all
government sponsored programs, within or outside US borders, including mind control, radiation, chemical, biological or any other type of experimentation upon children, prisoners or the mentally incapacitated. US
The determination of the legal, ethical and moral responsibilities of the US government or any other institutions to the survivors of any such experiments, which were perpetrated upon them as unwitting or uncomprehending individuals, and to determine remedies for those found to be physically and psychologically harmed by such experimentation.
The implementation of standards and practices to stop any current abuses and to place a moratorium on human mind control experimentation and any experimentation on unwitting or uncomprehending human subjects.
Patty Rehn and Lynne Moss-Sharman as presented by
Karen Coleman Wiltshire
ACHES-MC, Washington, D.C. Contact
*This Congressional Research report covers Existing and new radiation Compensation programs for civilians and veterans. It lists and differentiates between the available programs serving Nuclear test personnel, “downwinders,” uranium miners, former Department of Energy workers, veterans, Hanford Residents, Nuclear Tests and Human Radiation Experiments. It also lists addresses, telephone numbers, and when Available, websites of organizations dealing with radiation exposure issues.
http://www.aches-mc.org/ACHES-MC was formed in 1996 to assist and advocate on behalf of survivors of nonconsensual federally funded mind control experimentation as children or adults.
http://naffoundation.org North American Freedom Foundation
http://www.ritualabusetorture.org/resources.htm PERSONS AGAINST RITUAL ABUSE - TORTURE
Shadow Government: Keeping Perps safe underground http://my.dmci.net/~casey/Shadowgovernment.htm
Inquiries to Carol Rutz at email@example.com
Some Declassified CIA Documents on Bluebird, Artichoke and MKULTRA that seem pertinent to Today!!
MORI Doc ID: 140401 Approximate date
January 1, 1952
SUBJECT: Special Research, Bluebird
I. General Problem
For the past several months Bluebird - has been endeavoring to ascertain by
research, study, instruction and.. some. practice what value (if any) can be
derived from SI and H techniques when applied to war and specific Agency
problems. These broad problems; using known SI and H Techniques, may be
classified as follows:
A. Can accurate information be obtained from willing or unwilling individuals.
B. Can Agency-personnel (or persons or interest to this agency) be
conditioned to prevent any outside power from obtaining information from
them by any known means?
C. Can we obtain control of the future activities (physical and mental) of
any given individual, willing or unwilling by application of SI and H
D. Can we prevent any outside Power from gaining, control of future
activities (physical- and mental) of agency personnel by any known means?
Bluebird believes that A (above ) can be answered in the affirmative using
SI and H techniques. Bluebird Is not fully -satisfied with -results to date,
but believes with continued work and study remarkable and profitable results
con be obtained regularly.
However, B, C, and D (above) are at; yet unanswerable although Bluebird is
of the opinion that there is a worthwhile chance that all three may at some
future date be answered affirmatively. This opinion is supported generally by numerous individuals having knowledge of these techniques and by much literature and intelligence in this field.
Since an affirmative proof of B, C and D would be of incredible value to this agency Bluebird's general problem is to get up, conduct and carry out research (practical - not theoretical) in this direction.
Set out below is one specific proposal aimed at achieving our ends as rapidly as possible and with a maximum of security.
Through internal agency channels, Bluebird was given the name of deleted individual of deleted extraction and not a citizen of the
who had been given certain operational security clearance. Deleted was reported to have done considerable work in SI and H and to have an unusual and interesting general background. Deleted was also reported as being reliable, trustworthy, a known anti-Communist. In view of the above, and on the instructions of the Director of I&SS, deleted was brought to a safe area near headquarters and interviewed, interrogated and observed by Bluebird on 19, 20, 21 February 1951. Deleted personality, ability, and intelligence, sincerity and apparent security mindedness were impressive, Bluebird officers were unable to find any indications of deviousness or pro-Soviet interests during these observations. Deleted only apparent obvious weaknesses were his foreign background and non-United States citizenship. United States
According to deleted he was born in deleted in Next two pages totally blacked out.
Deleted discussed at various times his work and interest in the SI and H techniques. He claimed that most of his present work was along the lines of hypotherapy which involves post-H suggestion, but admitted that his experience with drugs, gases, et., in conjunction with SI and H was somewhat limited, although he was familiar with much of the literature (U.S. and foreign) in these fields. Deleted admitted that since he had been in the
he had induced H conditions in at least several hundred individuals, male and female (in all age groups). Deleted demonstrated successfully some of his operating methods before the B officers on the 19th, 20th, and 21st. U.S.
For matter of record deleted was briefed on the security aspects of B work and cautioned against all and any discussion outside concerning these mattes. Deleted signed the standard secrecy agreement.
III. General Proposals
On the basis of deleted apparent ability, relatively simple and easy cover, background, personality and interest, it is proposed that deleted be either directly employed or contractually employed by I&SS for specific purpose of engaging in guided research, testing, and experimentation along SI and H lines under the general direction of the Director of I&SS and under the immediate direction of B.
IV. Specific Proposals
A. It is proposed that deleted be brought to headquarters immediately and formally interviewed by deleted (interview to include basis of arrangements, cover, locations, salary, operational funds, and securing of PHS).
B. It is proposed that deleted be given a full and detailed Polygraph examination by deleted on material prepared by deleted.
C. It is proposed that immediately a full field investigation be started on deleted to include checking of all names, places, squadrons, etc., mentioned by him (High Priority).
D. It is proposed that immediately after deleted has been given full security clearance he will be thoroughly briefed, given all necessary funds and instructed to begin research and testing along lines set out in 5 (below).
E. It is proposed that after a minimum of time to permit deleted full opportunity to satisfactorily become operation, B offices and trainees will (under suitable cover) participate in and assist with the research and testing for purposes of training and experience.
V. Bluebird - Specific Problems
Set out below are specific problem which can only be resolved by experiment, testing and research as proposed in the paragraphs above. These are not in any sense all of the problems B is considering, but are merely typical and point up the need for practical research.
1. Can we "condition" by post-H (hypnotic) suggestion agency employees (or persons of interest to this agency) to prevent them from giving information to any unauthorized source or for committing any act on behalf of a foreign or domestic enemy?
2. Can we in a matter of an hour, two hours, one day, etc., induce an H condition in an unwilling subject to such an extent that he will perform an act for our benefit? (Long range).
3. Can we create by post-H control an action contrary to an individual's basic moral principles?
4. Could we seize a subject and in the space of an hour or two by post-H control have him crash an airplane, wreck a train, etc.? (Short, immediate activity)
5. Can we by SI and H techniques force a subject (unwilling or otherwise) to travel long distances, commit specified acts and return to us or bring documents or materials? Can a person acting under post-H control successfully travel long distances?
6. Can we use SI and H to combat fatigue, produce extreme mental effort?
7. Can we guarantee total amnesia under any and all conditions?
8. Can we "alter" a person's Personality? How long will it hold?
9. Can we design tests to determine whether or not an enemy agent has been conditioned by SI and H or any other method?
10. Can we detect SI and H by use of SI and H (regression)?
11. Can we make a "conditioned" subject reveal by SI and H specifically how they were conditioned (drugs, torture, fatigue, hostage pressure, techniques)?
12. Can we devise a system for making unwilling subjects into willing agents and then transfer that control to untrained agency agents in the field by use of codes or identifying signs or credentials?
13. How long can we sustain a post-H suggestion-unaided-with reinforcement?
14. What would be fastest way to induce SI and H conditions - with drugs - or without any mechanical aids?
15. Can we devise a standard simple relatively fast technique for inducing SI and H conditions that can be used by untrained agents (with or without drugs)?
16. Is it possible to find a gas that can be used to gain SI control from a gas pencil, odorless, colorless: one shot, etc.?
17. What are full details on "sleep-inducing machine"?
18. How can sodium A or P or any other sleep inducing agent be best concealed in a normal or commonplace item, such as candy, cigarettes, liqueur, wines, coffee, tea, beer, gum water, aspirin tablets, common medicines, coke, tooth paste?
19. How effective can the "carotid artery technique" be made? Can it be used while subject is unconscious? Is it faster than other techniques?
20. Can we, while a subject is under SI and H control, show them a map and have them point out specific items, locations, etc., on the map? Can we also have them make detailed drawings, sketches, plans? Could any of the above be done under field conditions and in a very short space of time?
21. Can we, while a subject is under SI and H control, show them a map and have them point out specific items, locations, etc., on the map? Can we also have them make detailed drawings, sketches, plans?
Could any of the above be done under field conditions and in a very short space of time?
MORI Doc 144703
January 1, 1952
PROBLEMS FOR DISCUSSION IN PROPOSED DELETED TRIP
The cases should be handled in a completely safe area. This area should be near places of confinement of subjects or where suitable facilities are available for holding subjects until ready for Artichoke techniques.
The safe house in which the actual operations will be carried out should, if possible, be fairly large - - possibly large enough to accommodate the entire Bluebird team for sleeping purposes and should be stocked with provisions so that the B team could live in during the Artichoke experimentation. In addition, the house should be of sufficient size to contain living quarters for guards.
3. WORKING AREA
The working area for the actual application of the Artichoke techniques should be two rooms with bath adjoining or nearby. If possible, these rooms should be lit by indirect lighting and the floors should be covered with rugs. The main operation room should be quite large and more or less in the nature of a large bedroom. These rooms should be on the second floor of any house.
Guard duty must be on a 24-hour basis at least at all times when subjects are on the premises.
Chemicals will be supplied by the B team unless the field is specifically requested to furnish some items. The chemicals will be the responsibility of the medical staff member of the B team.
6. MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS
Medical instruments will be supplied by the B team. They will be the responsibility of the medical staff member of the B team.
NOTE: Medical instruments and chemicals will either be destroyed or given to the field offices prior to the B team's departure for Headquarters. The only possible exception to this will be standard medical instruments normally carried by a doctor.
7. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT (Including Recorders)
All types of electronic equipment will be supplied by the B team unless the field offices are specifically requested to supply certain items. This equipment will be crated and shipped to the area prior to departure of the B team. In this connection, it is necessary that the B team know in advance the type of current used in the area and other technical details which will be requested prior to departure of the B team.
8. PHOTOGRAPHICEQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
Photographic equipment and supplies will be furnished by the B team.
9. TEAM PERSONNEL
At the present time, the B team will probably consist of deleted, deleted, deleted, and an M.D, to be designated by Dr. deleted.
10. REQUIRED TIME FOR THE OPERATION
It is estimated that any case will require a minimum of four days. This will include basic preparation, any necessary polygraph work, general testing, and the actual operation. Duration of cases depends upon many factors and cannot be easily estimated.
It is proposed that area polygraph men should be assigned to the Artichoke problem. The experience will be valuable and quite possibly some results may require polygraph testing. Area polygraph operators will be thoroughly instructed in Artichoke methods during their association with the Artichoke.
MORI DocID: 140400
January 1, 1952
Possible Fallibility of Polygraph Testing of Subjects in Posthypnotic States
A/B, III, 6, 17
Source is XXXX of a prominent psychiatric clinic and research foundation. Many new methods of psychognosis and psychotherapy have been developed under source's xxx.Source has previously submitted a report entitled xxxxx.
1. Q. On the basis of your knowledge of hypnology, do you think that it would be possible to induce a posthypnotic state on a subject in such a way that his reactions to polygraph testing would be significantly altered?
A. My offhand opinion is that this would be quite possible. Of course it would be very simple to conduct experiments which could definitely decide this question one way or another, but on the assumption that such experiments have been carried out, I should like to comment briefly on the possibilities to be considered.
As I understand it, the polygraph measures unconscious physical reactions to the stimuli of the mental disturbances caused by the telling of deliberate lies. Therefore, it would appear possible that a subject could possibly avoid these reactions if he were interrogated while in a posthypnotic state and thus establish his innocence for some incriminating acts or associations. This might be done by the induction of posthypnotic amnesia for the incriminating episodes and the substitution of an alibi situation by the establishment of false recollections. In other words, the subject would be convinced that he was actually telling the truth and would not have psychosomatic disturbance necessary for a polygraph reaction. In addition to this, complete amnesia of the hypnotism itself can be effected and affective defense can be set up against rehypnotization by another hypnotist. Furthermore, the subject's reactions to other questions used in testing the polygraphability of a subject would probably be normal.
MORI ID 148373 1/1/52
ORGANIZATION OF A SPECIAL DEFENSE INTERROGATION PROGRAM
A/B Y, 23/5
1. The Problem
The use of methods, other than conventional psychological interrogation by enemy nations gives them an advantage which is a serious problem to our national security. Solution of this problem excludes the use of duress as:
a. It is an action out of keeping with the traditions of the country.
b. Its results are unreliable or at least not as effective as those obtained from properly supplemented psychoanalytical techniques.
2. Action to be Initiated for its Solution.
Establishment of a special research program coordinated on a high level with other research programs and backed up by operational personnel for testing hypotheses under field conditions.
3. Essential Elements of this Program.
a. Establishment of known facts:
(1) Physiological research leading to a better understanding of the constituent factors in human behavior.
(2) Physiological and pharmacological research leading to better understanding of the action or effectiveness of various agents used in connection with efforts to control human behavior.
(3) Confirmatory evidence of use by the enemy of special techniques for extracting information or otherwise existing control over an individual.
(4) The evaluation of methods which have been used or may be used by the enemy to obtain true or false confessions, or obtain intelligence by breaking the will of the interrogatec. This will include:
(a) Interrogation under narcosis
(b) Subconscious isolation
(c) Shock techniques
(d) Use of ultrasonics and sonics
b. The development of methods for detection of techniques applied by the enemy.
MORI DocID: 140395
A/B, IV, 10, 9
15 February 1952
MEMORANDUM FOR: Assistant Director for Deleted
Assistant Director for Deleted
Chief, deleted TSS
SUBJECT: Research Projects
1. Attached is an outline of some research projects we are considering in connection with Project Artichoke.
2. I would appreciate any comments or suggestions you may have with respect to these or other projects which you may feel we would want to consider.
Cc: Deputy Director (Intelligence)
Deputy Director (Plans)
Attach: Outline of projects
PROPOSED:RESEARCH PROJECTS FOR PROJECT ARTICHOKE
Research Organization Principle Researcher Cost (approx.)
A. Entire line whited out
Purpose: To develop electric shock and hypnotic techniques for Artichoke use.
B. Entire line whited out
Purpose: To develop drug techniques for Artichoke use.
C. Entire line whited out
Purpose: To develop drug techniques for Artichoke use.
D. Not yet selected ---------------------------- whited out
Purpose: To develop neuro-surgical techniques for Artichoke use.
E. To be selected ---------------------------- whited out
Purpose: To develop new psychological techniques based upon work going on atdeleted use in Project Artichoke.
F. To be selected ----------------------------- whited out
Purpose: To develop new rapid screening and selection techniques for use in connection with Project Artichoke.
Total research contemplated – whited out
Initiation date: As soon as contract arrangements are completed.
Duration of Projects: One year with option to continue or expand if justified by results.
MORI ID: 140394 A/B, III, 6, 7
25 February 1952
Three Lines Deleted
Thursday 21 February 1952, the writer had an extended interview with line deleted. The conversation lasted from to approximately . The interview was laid on through the Contact Branch and introductions were made through deleted of the New York City Contact Office. NO difficulties were encountered in this matter.
2. Deleted is a professional hypnotist of exceptionally good reputation. He apparently has other means and has been a professional engineer and accountant. His apartment is in a deluxe apartment neighborhood in deleted and is in exceptionally good taste. Deleted resides with his sister.
3. Deleted is about six feet tall, wears horn-rim glasses, has a strong, aggressive look, and, physically, is quite impressive. He appears highly intelligent, was courteous, amiable, and co-operative throughout. Before getting to cases, the writer fenced with deleted for approximately three-quarters of an hour, talking generally about hypnosis and not disclosing positive security interests. After establishing in the writer's mind that deleted was competent and thoroughly understood the meaning of secrecy, the writer opened up and discussed positive matters. Set out below are a series of questions and answers which cover, in substance, the details of the interview with deleted.
Q: What are your experiences in general with hypnotism?
A: I have been a professional hypnotist for at least 15 years. At present, I am employed on a very confidential basis two days a week working in the line deleted. I also work constantly two lines deleted. I work as a deleted and I work continuously with all types of patients at deleted. I am not teaching hypnotism now, but I have taught many individuals hypnotism in the past.
Q: What part, do you think, did hypnotism play in the deleted; and other show trials by the
and their satellites? USSR
A. In my personal opinion, hypnosis possibly combined with duress, and possibly drugs, is how the "confessions" were brought about. I have long been interested in these trials and I believe it entirely possible to bring these things about through these techniques. It would take a great deal of continuous application and study of the individual to produce these results but the enemy has plenty of time and is capable of using any methods.
Q: Can you obtain information from an individual, willing or unwilling, by hypnotism?
A: Definitely, yes. Many of the medical cases I work on are involved in obtaining personal, intimate information and through hypnotism, I have been quite successful in obtaining this. If an individual refuses to co-operated with hypnosis, the doctors with whom I work use drugs, always sodium amytal.
Q: Do you think that this system would be useful in obtaining information from a recalcitrant, obstinate, and entirely uncooperative individual?
A: Yes, definitely. That is the only way to approach this type of individual, but even at that you would have to study your individual psychologically and the matter would require great skill. All people have to be approached in different manners as far as hypnotism goes, but if you could gain their confidence or at least indicate so, they would clearly understand you were not hostile to them and your battle would be more than half won.
Q: How far do you think individuals could be controlled by hypnosis?
A: This is a very difficult subject. Post-hypnotics will last twenty years and will be very strong if re-enforced from time to time. However, if direct control is wanted, and particularly without re-enforcement, perhaps twelve hours would be the most you could expect and even than a possibility exists that the person under hypnosis might suddenly be awakened by some external stimulus.
Q: Have you ever had any experience with drugs?
A: Yes, many times. I have worked with doctors using sodium amytal and pentothal and have obtained hypnotic control after the drugs were used. In fact, many times drugs were used for the purpose of obtaining hypnotic control.
Q: Were any other drugs used? Do you know any "new" drugs or are there an "wonder" drugs that can be used in this business?
A: No. I have known doctors to try other drugs but they do not have any success and almost without exception in my work, sodium amytal and pentothal are the weapons used. If I had to tackle a case, tough and unwilling, I would rely on sodium amytal. I do not know of any "wonder" drugs. I do not believe they exist and none of the psychiatrists and doctors I work with use anything but those I have mentioned.
Q: Have you ever heard of hypnosis being used in connection with electroshock?
A: No. I am familiar with the electroshock convulsion and coma but I have never attempted to obtain hypnotic control thereafter and have never heard of anyone doing this. However, some of my friends who are psychiatrists constantly use electroshock and I have complete access to their work. I shall make some experiments along these lines in the near future and when I see you again, we will discuss the results of this.
Q: Are there any individuals you might know who would be worthwhile in contacting along these lines?
A: Offhand, I cannot think of anyone except two lines deletedis perhaps one of the outstanding deleted in the country, thoroughly understands drugs and is well acquainted with my work. As far as hypnotists are concerned, I do not believe there are five competent professional hypnotists in the
today and I have nothing but contempt for the college professor who talks about hypnosis. Only the professional who can handle hypnosis in front of the public and on a large scale is capable of really giving first-rate advice or information on hypnotic work. U.S.
Q: Would you be willing to act as a consultant to this Agency?(Deleted was fully informed that the writer was making no offers and in no position to recruit personnel. This offer was being made in general terms.)
A: Yes, I feel that we are at war and if I can be of any help whatsoever, I shall be glad to give my time. If you need me on any given case, I will be glad to come.
Q: Would you accept pupils for private caching?
(Same explanation as above)
A: Yes. I think I could train an individual or at least give him a substantial background in two weeks, working out with him three times a week.
Q: Do you have any ideas that hypnotism could be used as a weapon?
A: Yes, I have thought about this often. It could certainly be used in obtaining information from recalcitrant people particularly with drugs. Furthermore, it can be used as a morale factor and in addition, it could be used as a recruiting source for special types of work. I will explain the last two. You have large D.P. camps in
Europeand Asia. You have to entertain these people. A good professional hypnotist is a good entertainer. Using mass hypnotic methods, he could drive
home thoughts that would be of great benefit to our side. Individuals that he gained control of through hypnotic influence could be converted to strong supporters of our viewpoint through suggestion. The opposite of this, of course, would hold true. Furthermore, along these lines, a good hypnotist running hypnotic shows for entertainment would pick up a great many subjects, some of whom might be exceptionally good subjects for us. These subjects could easily be tabbed and put to use.
Q: Have you ever been able to produce hypnosis without an individual's knowledge?
A: Yes, through the relaxing technique and on rare occasions been able to produce hypnotism against a person's will. However, you cannot count on this and to attempt to attach an individual who did not want to be hypnotized alone would be almost an impossible task. In that type of case, I would use sodium amytal and/or sodium pentothal.
Q. Do you have any special techniques that you think are valuable?
A. All techniques are valuable. I use about 18 different approaches to individuals ranging from fear to anxiety, to deception, etc., etc. All individuals are different and a hypnotist always studies his subjects carefully, psychologically and otherwise, before attempting hypnosis with them. Only skilled professional hypnotists have proper training and work at it often enough to be skilled hypnotists. I would be glad to show you all my techniques when we have time to discuss them.
There is a peculiar and somewhat dangerous technique involving pressure on the carotid artery. The technique of using pressure on this artery is largely a matter of timing. Pressure in the right place cuts off the flow of blood to the brain, apparently cuasing a rapid coma-like condition -- during this condition, hypnotic control can sometimes be obtained. The technique is not easy to learn. I have tried it only a few times but it has been successful.
Q: How effective are post-hypnotics; over what distances and time can they be effective?
A: Properly used post-hypnotics will last twenty years. They can be made more effective by re-enforcement from time to time. Post-hypnotics are not affected at all by time or travel or distance away from the person who placed the post-hypnotic. As a rule, post-hypnotics should be 100% effective in good subjects and they would certainly be more effective than a person operating under direct hypnotic control, since a person in a hypnotic trance can suddenly be brought out of it for various reasons, particularly after many hours, while a post-hypnotic will always remain strong.
Q: Can individuals be made to do things under hypnosis that they would not otherwise?
A: This is a muchly debated subject and, in my opinion, as a general rule, no individual will do anything against his moral code or upbringing under a hypnotic trance they would not do otherwise. However, it should be remembered that by the proper type of conditioning and a very intelligent and understanding approach using psychology, individuals could be taught to do anything including murder, suicide, etc. This would be difficult, but I believe it could be done by a careful process of conditioning a person psychologically while under a hypnotic state, setting a stage for the act as it were. I do not have much faith in test experiments in colleges because they are, by their very nature, experiments or tests. I do believe that you could carry out acts that would be against an individual's moral feelings if they were rightly, psychologically conditioned. Of course, it would not be as much of a problem to have an immoral person commit an immoral act or a murdered commit a murder, since by their nature they would have no hesitancy to do such a thing in their normal life. I do not know of any drugs that would do this under any circumstance, but I do feel that the deleted and other familiar cases in which individuals confessed to crimes which they could not have possibly committed was brought about by hypnosis, as I mentioned before, and lengthy
psychological conditioning. The question itself, of course, is one that has been debated a great many times but is difficult to actually arrange a "practical" test.
Q: Do you have any special techniques or ideas for detecting if an individual is under hypnosis or not?
A: Yes, I have several methods for detecting this and if I see you again, I will go over them in detail with you. There are certain tests that I make which I think are very effective. Along this same line, I also use several methods for detecting when individuals are faking or play acting with me or feigning hypnosis.
Q: Do you have any system for detecting good hypnotic subjects, particularly not along the lines of stage entertainments?
A: No particular system, but there are certain techniques that I apply in looking for good subjects. Most of these are basically standard tests and are, undoubtedly, known to you.(Reference was made to standard tests for suggestibility, all known to the writer.) In this connection, when I see you again, I will show you some of the methods I use along these lines.
Q: Can hypnosis be broken by another hypnotist if specific instructions have been given to a subject to prevent this?
A: I have been able to do this, but this is not easy and requires a great deal of time and effort, but I believe that almost any hypnotic control can be detected and broken if sufficient time and a careful psychological approach are used.
Q: Does alcohol assist in the obtaining of hypnosis in a subject?
A: I do not believe it helps. There are many other more important aids to hypnosis than a social drink or two. The first of these I believe would be anxiety, another would be fear, third might be exhaustion. However, in many cases, alcohol does make individuals more pliable and in that sense might have some results.
Q: Do you have any material that you think might be of interest to me along these lines?
A: Yes. As you know, an individual who has been hypnotized makes a very excellent courier. Even assuming that the post-hypnotic control could be broken or the individual hypnotized, it could still be protected as follows:
A person could be regressed to a certain time and date and then given the message and unless the person who subsequently gained control of the subject regressed the subject to the correct date and time set out, he could not get the message. Even more secure would be to move the individual forward. If he were moved from thirty years of age to thirty-five years of age at a given date and time and then given the message, unless the individual could guess the age, the time and the date in the future, he could not obtain the message. In my opinion, the use of this hypnotic technique is valuable from your point of view. Certain it is that by hypnotic control over an individual you can extract information probably better than any other known way. Furthermore, in good subjects you can create complete amnesias which should be helpful. In addition, as I mentioned above, I think this technique could be used on a mass scale as I explained both as a morale factor or for propaganda purposes. Some people in the Army I know are giving thought to these items, but whether it can ever be sold at the top-level, I cannot say. I think it would be very valuable. I will try when I return from my trip to contact a number of individuals, psychiatrists, and doctors that I know and without discussing any reasons, obtain from them any information that they may
have on new drugs or techniques. I do not believe that there are any new drugs and I do not believe there is anything such as the "wonder" drugs which will produce instant talking when given to an individual. I believe our hypnotic capacities are as good as the deleted and I also believe that they have not "wonder" rugs or any other drugs we do not know about. The only thing they have is plenty of time and they care nothing for normal conventions.
For matter of record, deleted professed great interest in this type of work stating that in his opinion, it had long been neglected by our Government. He stated he would contribute time and effort if he were called upon to do so and volunteered to assist in any case if he were called upon for assistances.